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Scotty Offline

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Tue Nov 20, 2007 1:30 pm
Wissenschaft und Scrabble Quote · reply

Tuffiasha, M., Roringa, R.W. & Ericssona, A. (2007): Expert Performance in SCRABBLE: Implications for the Study of the Structure and Acquisition of Complex Skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(3), 124-134.

Abstract:
Applied psychologists have long been interested in examining expert performance in complex cognitive domains. In the present article, we report the results from a study of expert cognitive skill in which elements from two historically distinct research paradigms are incorporated —the individual differences tradition and the expert-performance approach. Forty tournament-rated SCRABBLE players (20 elite, 20 average) and 40 unrated novice players completed a battery of domain-representative laboratory tasks and standardized verbal ability tests. The analyses revealed that elite- and average-level rated players only significantly differed from each other on tasks representative of SCRABBLE performance. Furthermore, domain-relevant practice mediated the effects of SCRABBLE tournament ratings on representative task performance, suggesting that SCRABBLE players can acquire some of the knowledge necessary for success at the highest levels of competition by engaging in activities deliberately designed to maximize adaptation to SCRABBLE-specific task constraints. We discuss the potential importance of our results in the context of continuing efforts to capture and explain superior performance across intellectual domains.


Scotty Offline

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Tue Nov 20, 2007 1:32 pm
#2 RE: Wissenschaft und Scrabble Quote · reply

Cansinoa, S. Ruiza, A. & López-Alonsob, V. (1999): What does the brain do while playing scrabble?: ERPs associated with a short–long-term memory task. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 31(3), 261-274.

Abstract:
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed the scrabble paradigm, a cued recall task that demands retrieving semantic memory information from long-term memory since subjects are not exposed to a previous study phase. The task combines short- and long-term memory processes and consists of forming words from a set of letters presented in random order. Short-term memory was manipulated by varying the number of letters (three, four and five) presented to the subject, while semantic memory was examined by comparing correct trials with no response trials. Behavioral results reveal that the subjects performed the task serially, as denoted by a linear reaction time increment as the number of random letters in the set increased. Short-term memory procedures were reflected by an amplitude increase of the N200 and by an amplitude decrease of the P300 increasing the number of letters. Successfully retrieving semantic information from long-term memory was indexed by a negative slow wave recorded at left frontal and left central sites, and by a positive slow wave predominant over right hemisphere sites. These findings provide evidence that semantic retrieval memory involves activity from both left and right hemispheres.


Scotty Offline

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Tue Nov 20, 2007 3:21 pm
#3 RE: Wissenschaft und Scrabble Quote · reply
Appel, A.W. & Jacobson, G.J. (1988): The world's fastest Scrabble program. Communications of the ACM archive, 31(5), 572-578.

Abstract:
An efficient backtracking algorithm makes possible a very fast program to play the SCRABBLE® Brand Crossword Game. The efficiency is achieved by creating data structures before the backtracking search begins that serve both to focus the search and to make each step of the search fast.
Fulltext: http://www.nongnu.org/eliot/download/aj.pdf

Gero Offline




Posts: 2.676

Thu Nov 22, 2007 1:25 pm
#4 RE: Wissenschaft und Scrabble Quote · reply
interessanter Artikel!

Nachdem aber der Artikel aus dem Jahr 1988 stammt, geh ich mal davon aus, dass mittlerweile die Geschwindigkeit beim Suchalgorithmus ein zweitrangiges Problem ist. (?) Oder gäbe es beim Umfang meines Wörterbuchs eine kritische Größe zu berücksichtigen?

Nachdem dein Algorithmus auch aggressiv immer nach dem Wort mit den meisten Buchstaben sucht, hat man von Extremverteilungen abgesehen, eigentlich nur eine Chance, wenn man am Ende eines Spieles strategisch legt. Also mal auf den einen oder anderen Punkt mehr verzichten, dafür aber alle Steine losbringen und - sofern dafür optiert wurde - eine zusätzliche Prämie bzw. die beim Gegner verbliebenden Restbuchstaben-Werte kassieren.

Gero

Scotty Offline

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Posts: 3.612

Thu Nov 22, 2007 2:44 pm
#5 RE: Wissenschaft und Scrabble Quote · reply

Bei dem Artikel geht es eigentlich nur darum, wie man eine Wortliste so effizient wie möglich gestalten, sprich durchsuchen kann. Falls ich den Text zu meiner Art der Computersuche noch nicht online gestellt habe, kommt er zumindest bald. Ich mache das wohl etwas einfacher.
Wahrscheinlich kann man genau das ableiten: Computer lassen sich durch prospektives Vorgehen, Planung, Kreativität schlagen. Allerdings kann der Computer eins deutlich besser: stupides Rechnen und suchen nach dem aktuell besten Wort.


Scotty Offline

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Posts: 3.612

Tue May 21, 2013 4:21 pm
#6 RE: Wissenschaft und Scrabble Quote · reply


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